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آماده ارائه انواع خدمات ترجمه دانشگاهی و مشاوره در زمینه ترجمه
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In contrast to translation strategies (the translators’ global approach or plan of action on a given text, according to their intention), translation procedures are used for sentences and smaller units of language within that text.


 

Translation procedures are methods applied by translators when they formulate an equivalence for the

 

purpose of transferring elements of meaning from the Source Text (ST) to the Target Text (TT). (Delisle)

 

Vinay and Darbelnet first proposed seven

methods or procedures (loan, calque. literal translation,

transposition, modulation, equivalence, adaptation) in 1973.

 

More than one procedure can be seen in one translation, and some translations may result from a cluster of

 

procedures that is difficult to discern

 

Source: Peter Newmark,

A Textbook of Translation New York: Prentice Hall, 1988) 69, 81-93;

Jean-Paul Vinay and J. Darbelnet,

Stylistique comparée du français et de l’anglais (Paris: Didier,

1973);

 

Jean Delisle et al., ed.

Translation Terminology. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins,

1999.

 

Terms between angular brackets <> are those in which Delisle differs from Newmark. When the Spanish

 

term has a form dissimilar to the English one, it appears between inverted commas “”.

 

W

ORD-FOR-WORD TRANSLATION (CLOSE TRANSLATION)= Transferring SL grammar and word order as well as

the primary meanings of all SL words

 

He works in the house -now > Il travaile dans la mansion maintenant

 

O

NE-TO-ONE TRANSLATION (CLOSE TRANSLATION)= Each SL word has a corresponding TL word, but their

primary (isolated) meanings may differ

 

hacer un examen > take an exam

 

§L

ITERAL TRANSLATION (CLOSE TRANSLATION)= Literal translation ranges from one word to one word,

through group to group (

un beau jardin > a beautiful garden), collocation to collocation (make a speech >

faire un discours

), clause to clause (when that was done > quand cela fut fait), to sentence to sentence

(

The man was in the street > L’homme était dans la rue)

§

THROUGH-TRANSLATION <CALQUE> “calco” = The literal translation of common collocations, names of

organizations, the components of compounds, and perhaps phrases

 

<To transfer a SL word or expression into the Target Text using a literal translation of its component

 

elements> (Delisle)

 

superman >Übermensch

 

compliments de la saison > compliments of the season

 

marriage de convenance > marriage of convenience

 

skyscraper > rascacielos

 

football > balompié

 

§

TRANSFERENCE, <BORROWING> “préstamo” (loan word, transcription; transliteration)= Transferring a SL

word to a TL. Either because the TL does not have a lexicalized correspondence, or for stylistic or

 

rhetorical reasons

 

e.g.

coup d’état; noblesse oblige!, Realpolitik, “mermelada light”, “música rap”, ad hoc formulation,

proper names, names of people (except the Pope and royals),

The Times, American On Line,

§

NATURALISTATION, <DIRECT TRANSFER, “traslado”>= Adapting a SL word first to the normal pronunciation,

then to the normal morphology of the TL

 

(in French)

thatchérisme; (in German) Performanz

§

SYNONYMY = To use a near TL equivalent to an SL word in a context, where a precise equivalent may or

may not exist. This procedure is used when there is no clear one-to-one equivalent, when literal translation

 

is not possible, and the word is not important in the text (adjectives, adverbs of quality), not important

 

enough for componential analysis.

 

Personne gentile > kind person

 

Conte piquant > racy story

 

§

TRANSPOSITION, SHIFT (Catford), <RECATEGORIZATION>= A change in the grammar from SL to TL

(singular to plural; position of the adjective, changing the world class or part of speech)

 

Working with you is a pleasure > Trabajar contigo… El trabajo contigo … Cuando trabajo contigo…

 

d’une importance exceptionnelle > exceptionally large

(SL adj. + adjectival noun > TL adv. + adj.)

Tras su salida

> after he’d gone out

There’s a reason for life > Hay una razón para vivir

 

with government support > apoyado por el gobierno

 

It’s getting dark > comienza a oscurecer

 

§<

DENOMINALIZATION>

To transform a noun or nominal structure in the ST into a verbal structure in the TT

 

Some language, such as French and German, prefer to package verb-related information in verbal nouns,

 

whereas English prefers to use verbs, specifically action verbs. Hnce we speak of <

deverbalization> or

<

nominalization> when translating out of English into other languages (Delisle)

§<

RECASTING> = To modify the order of the units in a ST in order to conform to the syntactic or idiomatic

constraints of the Target Text

 

§M

ODULATION= Variation through change of viewpoint, of perspective, and very often of category of

thought (Vinay and Darbelnet) introducing a clarification with respect to the original formulation

 

Il n’a pas hésité > He acted at once

 

shallow > poco profundo

 

(

POSITIVE FOR DOUBLE NEGATIVE, DOUBLE NEGATIVE FOR POSITIVE [ANTONYMY] - MODULATION)

sleep in the open > dormir à la belle étoile

 

sleep by the fire > sentarse junto a la chimenea

 

La scrittura non è altro che una forma di parlare > Lo escrito no es otra cosa que una forma de hablar

 

(

ABSTRACT FOR CONCRETE - MODULATION)

You’re quite a stranger > No se te ve el pelo> On ne vous voit plus

 

The firing of cannons > El estampido de los cañones

 

(

CAUSE FOR EFFECT - MODULATION)

from cover to cover > de la primera hasta la última página

 

(

ONE PART FOR ANOTHER - MODULATION)

lebensgefährlich

> danger de mort

heatlh insurance > seguro de enfermendad

 

À feu et à sang > a sangre y fuego

 

Safe and sound > Sano y salvo

 

(

REVERSAL OF TERMS - MODULATION)

(

ACTIVE FOR PASSIVE - MODULATION)

§

EQUIVALENCE (Vinay and Darbelnet)= To substitute a TL statement for a SL statement which accounts for

the same situation, even though there is no formal or semantic correspondence.

 

To render a set phrase [idiom, cliché, “locución”] from the SL with a set phrase from the TL which expresses

 

the same idea, although in a different way (Delisle).

 

Approximate equivalence of complete statements, accounting for the same situation in different terms.

 

Different from modulation in that it belongs to the semantic level, not to the lexical level.

 

An extreme case of ‘modulation’.

 

the story so far > Résumé des chapitres précédents

 

The early bird catches the worm > A quien madruga Dios le ayuda

 

One bitten, twice shy > El gato escaldado del agua fría huye

 

Such hypocrisy makes me see red > Esas hipocresías me sacan de quicio

 

Get off your backside and do something useful! > ¡Deja de rascarte la barriga y ponte a hacer algo útil!

 

No parking at all times > vado permanente

 

You are welcome > de nada

 

§<

ADAPTATION> (Vinay and Darbelnet) (CULTURAL EQUIVALENT for Newmark)= To replace a situation of

the SL by an analogous situation of the TL (when communicative situations are difficult to understand in

 

the culture of TL, when the situation of the SL does not exist in the TL - a cultural gap- and therefore

 

another equivalent situation has to be created)

 

To replace a socio-cultural reality from the SL with a reality specific to the Target Culture in order to

 

accomodate for the expectations of the Target Audience (Delisle)

 

Dear Sir > Muy señor mío

 

Yours ever > Le saluda atentamente

 

Saria male usar quelle parole antique toscane > Sería malo servirnos de aquellas palabras que ya estàn

 

fuera de uso

 

Dupont et Dupond

(characters in Tinin) > Thomson and Thompson > Hernández y Fernández >

= A cultural SL word is translated by a TL cultural word (Newmark)

 

baccalauréat

is translated as ‘(the French) ‘A’ level’, or Abitur as ‘(the German) ‘A’ level’

He met her in the pub > La encontró en el bar > Il l’ a retrouvée dans le café

 

vingt mètres derrière lui

> veinte metros por detrás de él > twenty yards behind him

§

RECOGNISED TRANSLATION = Use of the official or generally accepted translation of any institutional term

Rechtsstaat> constitutional state

 

§F

UNCTIONAL EQUIVALENT = To neutralise or generalise a SL cultural word by using a culture-free word

baccalauréat

> French secondary school leaving exam

he was not a diplomat but a wistful major in the Life Guards > No era diplomático sino triste general del

 

Regimiento Real de Caballería

 

§

DESCRIPTIVE EQUIVALENT, [related to EXPANSION OR AMPLIFICATION]

= To neutralise or generalise a SL cultural word by using a description

 

Samurai

> Japanese aristocracy from the eleventh to the nineteenth century

§

COMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS

To split up a lexical unit into its sense components

 

§C

OMPENSATION= When loss of meaning, sound-effect, metaphor or pragmatic effect in one part of a

sentence is compensated in another part, or in a contiguous sentence

 

The atmosphere in the big gambling room had changed. It was now much quieter > El ambiente había

 

cambiado por completo en la gran sala de juego, que ahora se encontraba más tranquila

 

E.g. The French use of the pronoun

tu to express familiarity between two people (as opposed to formal

vous

) could correspond in English to the use of a first name or nickname, or be marked by familiar

syntactic phrases (ex. I’m, you’re) (Delisle).

 

§

EXPANSION <AMPLIFICATION>

To use more words in the Target Text in order to re-express an idea or to reinforce the sense of a ST word

 

because his correspondence in the TL cannot be expressed as concisely (Delisle)

 

vivificante > life-giving

 

penalty

(in football) > tir de réparation

Yorkshire > condado de Yorkshire

 

§

PARAPHRASE= Amplification or explanation of the meaning of a segment of the text

For Delisle, paraphrase is the result of amplifying a TT by replacing a word from the ST with a group of

 

words or phrasal expression that has the equivalent sense

 

§

EXPLICITATION

To introduce precise details into the TT for clarification (Delisle)

 

To help resolve the basic questions of delegation > Para ayudar a resolver el problema fundamental de la

 

delegación de poderes

 

§

REDUCTION <CONCENTRATION> <resulting in CONCISION and in ECONOMY>

computer science > informática

 

machine à laver

> lavadora

OMISSION

 

= To concentrate or suppress elements in the TL text

 

The committee has failed to act > La comisión no actuó

 

§<

IMPLICITATION>

A translation procedure intended to increase the economy of the TT and achieved by not explicitly rendering

 

elements of information from the Source Text in the Target Text when they are evident from the context

 

or the described situation and can be readily inferred by speaker of the TL

 

Be sure the iron is unplugged from the electrical outlet before filling with water

> Desconectar la plancha

siempre antes de llenar el depósito

 

§

NOTES, ADDITIONS, GLOSSES

When the translator supplies additional information in the form of footnotes, endnote, glossaries at the end

 

of the text, or within the text (e.g.

Debrecen > the city of Debrecen, in West Hungary)


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