“ Contrastive Analysis (CA), may be roughly defined as a subdiscipline of linguistics concerned with comparison of two or more languages or subsystems of languages
in order to determine both the differences and similarities between them
Both English and Persian have phonemes which are conventionally represent by the same symbols /p/ and /f/, it should not be taken to imply that the English and
Persian sounds are in any sense the same
This sameness of background is termed as “common base”, “equivalence” or “tertium comparationis” abbreviated as TC.
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