The translation models focused largely on the sentence level and the analysis of deep sentence structure. Nida's (1964) reader-oriented dynamic equivalence started the idea of using sentence grammar for the improvement of Bible translation. Catford (1965) on the other hand, refined Halliday's grammatical 'rank scale' theory to "underline the hypothesis that translation of equivalence depends upon the availability of formal correspondence between linguistic items at different structural levels and ranks" (Hartmann, 1980), and more so at the sentence level.
As we all know, good translation is not usually just a question of translating each word in turn of the source text into the target language. Nor does it (often) consist, however, of the translator skimming through the source text, putting it aside and then jotting down the general idea of it in his or her own words in the target language. In between the two extremes there is a wide variety of techniques ("strategies"), many of which translators will use intuitively for any given text.